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Abstract


TRANSITION TO BRITISH COLONIALISM IN SUDAN: THE CONDOMINIUM TREATY (1899)
Although the absolute sovereignty of Great Britain over Sudan started with the 1899 Treaty, the struggle for influence over Sudan goes back until the Mahdi discourse of Muhammad Ahmed in 1881. Moreover, British interest in the region can be traced back to the early 1870s, when British officers under the Khedive of Egypt took up high positions in Sudan. The implementation of the British policies on Sudan begins with the occupation of Egypt in 1882. The southward expansion policy of England with Egypt became possible after nearly 20 years due to the strong actions of the Mahdi of Sudan, Mohammed Ahmed. After the withdrawal of the Anglo-Egyptian military force with great losses, the second invasion attempt started with the Dongola Campaign in March 1896. This operation, carried out by the joint Anglo-Egyptian military force against the Caliph Abdullah, the successor of Muhammad Ahmed, resulted in 1898, and the official status of Sudan was determined with the Condominium Agreement in January 1899. This treaty which was signed between Britain, Egypt and Sudan on January 19, 1899 handed over the sovereignty of Sudan to the joint administration of Britain and Egypt. The 1899 Treaty consisted of 12 articles, and some of its articles caused discussions between the British and Egyptian administrations in the following years. Although Lord Cromer, the British Ambassador in Cairo, contributed to the determination of the articles of this treaty, it should be stated that it was created by the British Government to a large extent. This study will examine the transition process to the Condominium, the unique administration of that period, and the Treaty of 1899. By evaluating the 1899 Treaty, it will be possible to better understand the periods when Sudan was under British colonial rule in the 20th century.

Keywords
Africa, Sudan, Colonialism, Condominium


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Duyurular

    Karadeniz Araştırmaları "71. Sayı" yayınlandı

    Karadeniz Araştırmaları 71. sayı yayınlandı



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